Monday, 5 March 2018

Philip the Bold VI

Olivier de Clisson
Marriage of the King

The French army returned to Paris in January 1383; strengthened by the victory against the rebels of Ghent. The Parisians came out in force and were ordered to lay down their arms. The gates of the city were thrown down for the king to ride over as he entered his capital city and the chains, that blocked off city streets, were removed. Arms were to be handed in at the Louvre and were then transported to Vincennes. About one hundred rebels were executed.

A sales tax of twelve pence in the livre was instituted on all merchandise with additional taxes on wine and salt. Back taxes were demanded and the ordinances and privileges of Paris were revoked. The guilds were emasculated by the imposition of supervisors appointed by the Provost of Paris.

Both Philip and his brother of Berry were united against the encroachment of the king’s champion, Olivier de Clisson[i]. In February 1384 the two brothers signed a mutual defence treaty with Clisson’s enemy John de Montfort, Duke of Brittany.

Charles VI (Top C) and Isabeau (Bottom C)
In July 1385, in compliance with his father’s deathbed wishes, Charles VI was married to Isabeau of Bavaria[ii]. Philip and Albert of Bavaria had discussed the question of marriage between Charles and Isabeau during the celebrations of the double Valois-Wittlesbach wedding in April. Charles was seventeen and his bride was fifteen.

Problems arose when the French demanded that the bride-to-be be examined by the ladies of the court; a demand that the bride’s father refused. Charles spoke to his uncle Philip;

‘The Duke of Burgundy came in. ‘Uncle’ said the King, ‘it is our wish to be married in this fine cathedral of Amiens. We do not want any further delays.’ ‘Just as you say, my lord’ said the Duke.’[iii]

Philip and his brother Berry were to retain the reins of government until 1388 when Charles reached the age of twenty and took over control of his kingdom from his uncles. Clisson boasted that it was he who had made Charles;

‘King and lord of his kingdom and taken the government out of the hands of his uncles’[iv]

Charles reigned with the help of Clisson and his father’s Marmousets. In November 1388, notwithstanding the blow to his pride, Philip entertained the king, Clisson and Louis d’Orléans at his hôtel in Conflans. He also undertook diplomatic missions on behalf of the crown to Italy in 1391 and to Amiens in 1392.

Starting a Family Feud

The Madness of the King
Charles’ independent rule lasted until 1392 when Philip was able to take control of the kingdom’s affairs again. Charles was leading an expedition to punish the Duke of Brittany for harbouring Pierre de Craon, who had attempted to assassinate the Constable. He insisted that his uncles, who were allied with Brittany, accompany him.

En route, Charles was seized by a manic fit as the company rode through the forest of Le Mans. A stranger chanced to call out to Charles as he was riding by; immediately afterwards Charles was further startled by a page who dropped his lance. Charles drew his sword and fell on his entourage and killed at least one of them before being disarmed.

‘The Dukes of Berry and Burgundy rode talking together….the page carrying the lance forgot what he was about or dozed off…..There was a loud clang of steel, and the King, who was so close that they were riding on his horse’s heels, gave a sudden start….he imagined that a great host of his enemies were coming to kill him….The Duke of Burgundy….looked across and saw the King chasing his brother with a naked sword….Knights, squires and men-at-arms formed a circle right round the King, allowing him to tire himself out against them.’[v]

From Le Mans Philip and Berry dismissed the Marmousets and disbanded the army, seizing the reins of government. Philip and Berry’s high-handedness angered their nephew Louis d’Orléans[vi] who, as Charles’ closest relative, considered that he should be his brother’s regent. Clisson’s injuries kept him from supporting Louis and in short order found himself without a job; Philip having dismissed him summarily.

Attacking the Turk
In 1396 the Ottoman’s annual chevauchée wended its cumbersome way to Hungary where the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund called on Christendom to defend the country against the infidel. The call to crusade was answered by military from across northern Europe. Philip, as a committed Christian, was ready to answer the call and sent his eldest son John, now twenty-four, at the head of the Burgundian army.

In September 1396 the combined armies of the French, English, Bulgarian, Wallachian, Croatian, Hungarian and Burgundians were routed by the Ottomans led by Bayezid I. It was possibly the case that the Ottomans, with one supreme leader, were able to offset the vastly numerically superior enemy by a unified command, whereas the Christians had not one but eleven leaders, four of whom were taken captive[vii].

In January 1397 Philip sent an embassy to Bayezid with gifts that he hoped would appeal to the potentate;

‘Ten superb charges, complete with their harness and led by seventeen grooms in white and scarlet livery, hounds, gyrfalcons, the very finest examples of cloth and tapestry, a dozen pairs of gloves and some choice pieces of plate.'[viii]

By June an agreement was reached whereby the prisoners were to be exchanged in return for a ransom of 200,000 ducats[ix]. Philip had to turn to his subjects to raise his son’s ransom and the negotiations took months to agree; the Flemings and Burgundians had already been paying over the odds to fund the crusade in the first place

Regent and Patron of the Arts

Broederlam altarpiece
Like all major nobles Philip supported the arts; he was a patron of Christine de Pisan, enjoining her, shortly before his death, to write Le Livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roy Charles V. Philip also patronised Honoré Bonet, the Prior of Salon[x] and Eustache Deschamps. Philip and his wife shared a love of books and built up two libraries in Paris and Arras.

Philip used well-known sculptors, including Jean de Marville and Claus Suter[xi], to work on the Charterhouse of Champmol, a religious foundation he had long supported, arranging it as a sepulchral monument for himself and his heirs. The work started in 1377, and was built from locally quarried stone.

He also commissioned artists to work on this funerary monument, including Melchior Broederlam who painted two wings to decorate an altarpiece by Jaques de Braerze. Broederlam’s talents were mainly used to decorate Philip’s castle in Hesdin. Philip first employed the Limbourg brothers who were later to work for his brother Berry[xii].

Broederlam altarpiece
Throughout his time as Regent Philip was to find himself in conflict with his nephew Louis, over his determination to forcibly take control of his wife’s inheritance in Italy, over the great schism, over taxes Louis had imposed in his territories that disadvantaged Philip’s subjects and rivalry between the two duchesses.

In 1401 both men mustered troops in Paris. The situation was saved by intervention from the Queen, and the dukes of Berry and Bourbon. In 1403 Philip was able to exclude Louis from all but a very subordinate role in the regency. He further strengthened his position by marrying his grandchildren into the royal family. The feud exacerbated the realm’s internal disorder and reduced the effectiveness of foiling foreign interventions.

Philip died on 27th April 1404 leaving his eldest son John to inherit not just the duchy, but the ongoing feud with Louis d’Orléans which was to have tragic consequences for France[xiii]. Philip was buried in a tomb in the palace of the Dukes of Burgundy in Dijon. The tomb was the work of Marville and Suter and made of black marble. Philip’s statue is guarded by two golden angels


Chronicles – Froissart, Penguin Books 1968

Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 – George Holmes, Fontana 1984

The Fourteenth Century – May McKisack, Oxford University Press 1997

A Distant Mirror – Barbara Tuchman, Papermac 1989

Philip the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2011

The Flower of Chivalry – Richard Vernier, Boydell Press 2003


[i] He was made the Constable of France after du Guesclin’s death in 1380
[ii] A scion of the Wiitelsbachs and granddaughter of Bernabo Visconti
[iii] Chronicles - Froissart
[iv] Translated from the French in Philip the Bold - Vaughan
[v] Chronicles - Froissart
[vi] Now married to Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti
[vii] Almost all the Franco-Burgundian army were killed or captured including John the Fearless, Enguerrand de Coucy, Philip of Artois and John le Maingre, a Marshal of France
[viii] Philip the Bold - Vaughan
[ix] In 2016 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £155,800,000.00, labour earnings of that income or wealth is £1,417,000,000.00, economic status value of that income or wealth is £3,652,000,000.00, economic power value of that income or wealth is £88,170,000,000.00  
[x] A Benedictine priory in Provence
[xi] Suter was made court sculptor of Burgundy in 1389 and continued to hold the position until his death. The post carried the rank of valet de chambre
[xii] For whom they created the masterpiece les Trés Riches Heures de Duc de Berri

Monday, 26 February 2018

Philip the Bold V

Charles IV
The Emperor’s Visit

In late December 1377 the Holy Roman Emperor paid a visit to Paris. Charles V wanted to tighten ties with the empire and his uncle Charles IV. On 22nd the emperor was met at Cambrai by French nobles and thence escorted to Paris. Philip was among those who greeted the emperor on his arrival at Senlis. An attack of gout meant that the emperor entered France’s capital in a litter.

Charles V was accompanied by Philip and the Dukes of Bar, Berry and Bourbon and others of the nobility and officials when he rode to meet his uncle. When the two men were finally able to be private after the ceremonies that followed;

‘They removed their hats and spoke together with great friendship and joy of meeting.’[i]

At a state occasion on January 6th Philip and his brother of Burgundy served wine and spices to the emperor and their brother after a banquet for 800 guests and entertainment by minstrels. The company then all transferred to the Hall of Parlement where a spectacle representing the taking of Jerusalem during the first crusade was on offer.

The Louvre
The following day a boat constructed like a residence with ‘halls, chambers, fireplaces and chimneys’ carried King Charles and his guest down to the new palace of the Louvre which had been modernised from an ancient fortress. In between all the festivities the two monarchs held private talks.

The final occasion for the emperor’s visit was the laying out of the case against England. Charles V was concerned about

‘The lies the English were spreading in Germany.’[ii]

He spoke for two hours tracing the causes of the quarrel but no concrete alliance resulted from the speechifying or the private talks. The visit did being some benefit; honouring and enhancing France’s reputation.

Death of a King

In the summer of 1380 Thomas of Woodstock[iii], decided to take the long way round to support English troops in Brittany, taking his army through Champagne and Burgundy. Accompanied by such luminaries as Sir Robert Knollys and Sir Hugh Calveley, Thomas cut a swathe across France, closely shadowed by French knights and soldiers to hamper foraging. Nevertheless, when the citizens of Rheims refused to succour them, the English burnt 60 villages surrounding the city.

Coronation of Charles VI
Philip commanded two thousand knights, ready to ignore Charles V’s order not to engage in direct confrontation with the English. He was called away from his command on his brother’s orders. Charles knew his end was nigh and called for his brothers and his brother-in-law to attend him at his favourite chateau at Beauté-sur-Marne. He was concerned about his part in the schism in the church and his taxations of his people.

He died on 16th September 1380 and Philip became one of the council of four regents, made up of the uncles of the new eleven year old king Charles VI, along with the dukes of Berry, Anjou[iv] and Bourbon. Anjou was to be regent while Philip and Bourbon were to have the care and personal guardianship of the young king. According to Froissart, on his death bed Charles;

‘Desired, that if a suitable match could be found, that his son Charles should be married to some German lady. In this way the Germans and the French would be drawn into closer alliance.’[v]

The three brothers and Bourbon quarrelled about Charles’ directions and eventually a compromise was reached wherein Anjou became president of the regency council. Anjou was more concerned about a projected expedition to Naples where he planned to seize the kingdom. The actual running of the country was left to Charles V’s officials known as les Marmousets. Philip had control of northern France while Berry was lieutenant of southern France.

Insurrection in France

Abbey of St Ouen church
As Charles V had feared his brother Anjou’s determined pursuit of money instigated the Harelle tax revolt in 1382[vi]. In January Anjou had instigated new sales taxes on wine, salt and other commodities[vii]. The order had been issued secretly and the bidding for the post of tax farmer for these new taxes was held behind closed doors.

As news of the new taxes spread riots began in Paris, Laôn, Orléans, Rheims and Amiens. Anjou refused to rescind the order. Violence broke out in Rouen at the end of February where the vintners were badly affected by the tax on wine.

Chateau de Vincennes
They worked the crowd into a rage and the crowd responded by attacking priests, Jews, pawnbrokers and the homes of all the former mayors of the city. The rich Abbey of St Ouen was also attacked. The riot fell apart with the arrival of the young king and the leaders of Rouen begged Charles for pardon and Charles was advised to grant it. The town’s liberties were revoked and a royal bailiff placed in charge.

Even as the citizens of Rouen were being pardoned, Paris rose up in revolt. On 1st March a tax collector was killed for demanding monies off a woman selling watercress at Les Halles. Crowds attacked the Hotel de Ville and removed the arms[viii] stored there before running amuck in the city. The nobility and the rich fled to Vincennes and the city gates were closed[ix]. The richer bourgeoisie mobilised a militia to resist both the rebels and retaliation from the crown

Suppression of the revolt is attributed to Philip; he, the Chancellor and Enguerrand de Coucy went to the Porte St Antoine to parley with the revolting Parisians who demanded an abolition of all levies since the king’s coronation and amnesty for all rioting. On behalf of the crown Philip, Coucy and the Chancellor agreed to all the demands. Some of the rioters were executed while fines were levied, while discontent simmered close beneath the surface. 

Helping Out the Family

Louis de Male
In 1380 the people of Ghent rebelled against their liege lord Louis de Male when he imposed a tax to pay for a tournament he wished to hold. They refused to pay crying out against the squandering of tax monies on;

‘The follies of princes and the upkeep of actors and buffoons.’[x]

Louis besieged rebellious Ghent which overthrew his dominion following an attack by Louis on the starving city. Louis only evaded capture by exchanging clothes with his valet.

Philip van Artevelde[xi] the leader of the insurrection declared himself Regent of Flanders and the region’s towns surrendered to his rule. Artevelde gave himself airs and graces, requiring trumpets to announce his arrival, wearing miniver and scarlet[xii] and dined off the count’s silver plate seized as booty.

Louis de Male turned to his son-in-law Philip for help dealing with his rebellious subjects. Philip invaded Flanders in November 1382 with his nephew the king and his co-regents at the head of an army of French nobles and their men, estimated to be up to 50,000 in total. With the army came the Oriflamme[xiii], to indicate to all that the French were engaged in a holy war.

Battle of Roosebeke
The French defeated the rebel Flemings[xiv] at the battle of Roosebeke on 27th November, during which Artevelde was crushed to death along with many of his followers. The young king greeted his victorious warriors and;

‘Welcomed them joyously and praised God for the victory which, through their efforts, He had given.’[xv]

Artevelde had allied with the merchants of England and the following year the pugnacious Hugh le Despenser, Bishop of Norwich[xvi] ostensibly led a crusade to Flanders[xvii]; in reality it was an expedition by the English in support of the rebels. The expedition was a failure and Philip took over running the county when his father-in-law died in 1384.

The Peace of Tournai was signed on 18th December 1385. The treaty allowed for Ghent to keep its privileges, there was an amnesty for the rebels and that Ghent would be free to choose which pope it supported. However, Ghent was required to give up its treaty with England and recognize the King of France.


Chronicles – Froissart, Penguin Books 1968

Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 – George Holmes, Fontana 1984

The Fourteenth Century – May McKisack, Oxford University Press 1997

A Distant Mirror – Barbara Tuchman, Papermac 1989

Philip the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2011

The Flower of Chivalry – Richard Vernier, Boydell Press 2003


[i] A Distant Mirror - Tuchman
[ii] Ibid
[iii] The youngest of Edward III’s children
[iv] Charles was concerned that his brother Anjou would use the French treasury as his own
[v] Chronicles - Froissart
[vi] Anjou’s pursuit of a crown had been forestalled by the murder of Joanna of Naples; see
[vii] To fund his march to Naples
[viii] 3,000 long handed mallets with heads of lead (maillets) used by police which led to the insurrectionists being known as Mailliotins.
[ix] Part of the city wall was rebuilt during the reign of Charles V and continued during Charles VI’s reign
[x] A Distant Mirror - Tuchman
[xi] Son of Jacob van Artevelde, one of the leaders of an insurrection against Louis I of Flanders in the late 1320s; Artevelde was a merchant
[xii] Contrary to sumptuary laws
[xiii] Carried for the first time since Poitiers
[xiv] Many of whom lacked even basic armour
[xv] A Distant Mirror - Tuchman
[xvi] Known as the Fighting Bishop
[xvii] Flanders and England supported the pope in Rome; at the time the Western Schism meant that there were two popes, one in Avignon, supported by the French and one in Rome. Pope Urban VI in Rome authorised the crusade