Tuesday, 28 August 2012

On This Day in the Third Reich

Karl Maria Wiligut is officially retired from the SS, his ‘application’ for retirement on the grounds of ill-health having been granted in February 1939.

Wiligut, known within the SS as Weisthor, was a protégé of Heinrich Himmler’s. The Reichsfuhrer SS was deeply interested in cults and the occult, a fascination that he preferred to keep from both the public and Hitler, who was dismissive of Himmler’s interests. In August 1935 Goebbels recorded a comment of Hitler’s

'Rosenberg, Himmler & Darré have to stop their cultic nonsense'[i]

Wiligut was able to play on Himmler’s credulousness to establish his position in the SS.

Wiligut had been an Austrian army officer, who was part of the Viennese völkisch circles prior to the Great War. His book Seyfried’s Runes was published in1903. After the war he acquired a reputation as an extreme anti-Semitic and edited a periodical criticising Jews, Christians and Freemasons. Wiligut was violent at home and displayed improper physical affection towards his daughters. In November 1924 Wiligut was committed by his wife to a Salzburg institution for three years. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia, megalomania and paranoid delusions. The following year Wiligut was legally incapacitated.

Wiligut, by now calling himself Weisthor (Wise Thor) joined the SS in 1932. Wiligut was involved in Himmler’s decision to put the ancient castle of Wewelsburg, near Paderborn, to use as an education centre for the SS. Wiligut informed Himmler that Westphalia was said by local legend to be the future site of an apocalyptic battle between East and West, which appealed to the romantic in Himmler. A labour camp was set up outside the castle and millions of Reichsmarks were spent on the works transforming the castle to fit in with Himmler’s delusions.

In October 1934 Himmler made the 66 year old Wiligut director of the Race and Main Settlement Office archives. Wiligut devised many of the SS ceremonies designed to oust the religious ceremonies used by Christians. He also designed the Yule lights given out instead of Christmas gifts and the Death’s Head ring, a much coveted award solely in Himmler’s gift.

In January 1936 he was given responsibility for special commissions. Wiligut claimed to be able to make contact with his ancestors and access occult information. This suited the gullible Himmler, who had Wiligut prepare articles on history and prehistory and religious questions. Wiligut suggested that Himmler introduce an ancient Germanic religion into Germany.
    Wolff and Himmler at Wewelsburg

In November 1938 Obergruppenfuhrer Karl Wolff visited Frau Wiligut and was informed of Wiligut’s mental health problems. On 28th August 1939 Brigadefuhrer Weisthor was retired from the SS. His Death’s Head ring had to be returned, but was kept by Himmler in his strong room.

The connection was not entirely broken off as in the summer of 1940 Himmler had Wiligut advise him on the design of an emblem for the SS dead fallen in battle. Himmler was still in contact with Wiligut in November 1941 when the two met for lunch in Berlin. The SS provided Wiligut with a housekeeper/companion and accommodation, in an SS guest house in Carinthia, until the end of the regime. Wiligut died of a heart attack in January 1946.


Heinrich Himmler – Martin Månsson, Schiffer Military History 2001

Heinrich Himmler – Peter Longerich, Oxford University Press 2012

The SS – A New History – Adrian Weale, Little Brown 2010


Hitler the Policies of Seduction – Rainer Zitelmann, London House 1999

[i] Hitler - Zitelmann

Friday, 24 August 2012

The Prince Regent

The Regency

Following his father King George III’s final relapse into madness, George Prince of Wales was made Prince Regent in February 1811. His mother, Queen Charlotte, and the Archbishop of Canterbury were given control of the king, who was locked up at Windsor Castle under the care of the brutal Willis family. Finally George was in control of the purse strings, or as much as he was ever likely to be.

George’s Whig friends assumed that the Regent would throw out the Tory government under Spencer Perceval and install a ministry under Greville. This Prince George failed to do. There was a stark dividing line between the two parties on policy; conduct of the war and Catholic emancipation. The issue of voting reform was also exercising political minds. The future Prince Regent was more in line with Tory thinking over the great issues of the day, while letting his friends assume that there would be a change of government.

Not long before the passing of the Regency Act Queen Charlotte wrote to her son informing him that his father’s health had improved. This allowed the Prince of Wales to defer action on changing the government, on the grounds that his father’s recovery would mean a further change in ministry. In the event the king was to remain locked away at Windsor, until his death in1820.  

On 18th June 1811 the Prince Regent celebrated his new status with a party, in questionable taste. The exiled royalty of Europe flocked to the prince’s table, which boasted such vulgarities as a canal, filled with fish, down the middle of the table.

But by the autumn of 1811 the Prince Regent, self-indulgent to the end, was tired of dealing with the puritanical Spencer Perceval. He looked to bring his Whig friends into power, but indicated in a letter to his brother, the Duke of York, that he did not want a change in political direction. The result was a change on some of the members of the ministry, but no dramatic change in direction. By February of the following year the one year of restraints imposed on the Regent by the Regency Act, expired.

In February 1812 Perceval piloted the bills for increasing the Regent’s income through the House of Commons. This was a tricky business in a time of economic unrest and rising prices. George had always been a spendthrift and throughout his life never felt constrained by the country’s economic woes to curtail his extravagant lifestyle. The opposition objected to Perceval’s proposals but their hostility was handicapped by their previous support for George.
Assassination of Spencer Perceval
On 10th May 1812 the Prime Minister was assassinated. George wanted a bipartisan ministry to replace the Tories. But both parties refused to accommodate his wishes, whereupon the Regent re-appointed Perceval’s men with Lord Liverpool as Prime Minister. The ministry’s position in the House of Commons had strengthened during the negotiations. 

It was during the Regency that the privilege of choosing the ministry switched from king to parliament. Hereafter it was to be the grouping with a House of Commons majority that was to form a ministry to run the country; a constitutional change of importance.

The Catholic Relief Bill of 1813 was not passed onto the statute books, in part because of the Prince Regent’s opposition.

A Man Unlike His Father
Beau Brummell
The Regent had always been a man of enthusiasms, but faithless to friends in need. His desires had to be met, regardless of expense and regardless of whether money was available to pay for them. Up until 1814 the prince had been friendly with George ‘Beau’ Brummell, but the two fell out and Brummell, who had gambled away his fortune fled to France to escape his creditors and live out the rest of his life in poverty.

 The Prince had of course discarded Mrs Fitzherbert with unseemly haste too. His youthful affair with the actress Mary Robinson had ended with a promise from the prince that he would pay her the sum of £20,000[i] when he achieved his majority. Mrs Robinson held letters from the Prince that he did not want his father to see and he offered her £5,000, which the king had to apply to Lord North for;

‘My eldest son got last year into a very improper connection with an actress and woman of indifferent character....£5,000 is an enormous sum, but I wish to get my son out of this shameful scrape.’[ii]

something which could not have endeared the son to his father. George paid Mary Robinson an annuity, but this appears to have often been in arrears, causing her problems.

George III blamed Charles James Fox for leading the Prince of Wales from the path of virtue. Fox was a leader of London’s young men of fashion; Fox drank heavily, had plenty of scandalous love affairs, gambled playing for high stakes and was one of the leaders of the Whig politicians. Prince George, unlike his father, was attracted to the excitement of this life of loucheness. But like his father sided with the opposition.

George was not really interested in the sole progeny of his ill-starred marriage to Caroline of Brunswick. In 1813 it was proposed that Princess Charlotte should marry the Prince of Orange. The princess initially agreed to the match, although she was not taken with him personally. At their first meeting he became drunk, along with her father and a number of his friends. Charlotte told the Prince of Orange that she would always welcome her mother at her home, something which angered her father. Charlotte eventually broke off the engagement and married Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg.

To his sisters the Prince Regent was more generous. Hitherto kept cabined, cribbed, confined; after the death of their mother in 1818; their brother allowed them a modest amount of freedom. 

The End of War

In later years, when king, George was to declare that he fought at both Salamanca, leading a charge of dragoons and Waterloo. These claims were met by his then Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington, in silence. The Prince Regent had not been involved in the military, despite requests made to his father. After the capture of Cuidad Rodrigo, George had been more interested in his marital problems, than dealing with military matters. Indeed in 1810, under the influence of his Whig friends the Prince of Wales had criticised Britain’s foremost general. George did not allow the small matter of total military ignorance to stand in his way.

But when Wellington returned to England after the abdication of Napoleon and the trouncing of French troops on the Spanish Peninsula, the Prince Regent was more inclined to be gracious. Visiting Wellington’s nephew’s home on the occasion of a grand party in the great general’s honour George affably told Wellington

‘My dear fellow, we know your actions, and we will excuse you your words, so sit down.’[iii]

In the 100 days between Napoleon’s abdication and his re-appearance on the international scene, the Prince Regent was a supporter of proposals to send Wellington to America, where war had broken out again, the Americans raiding Canada and accusing the British of supporting the native Americans. The war in America petered out, the two sides were stalemated. The American government’s finances were so low they were dependent on illegal trading with the enemy; whilst the British realised that their aim was to trade with the Americans rather than waste money fighting them.

On continental Europe Napoleon’s bid to regain his empire failed at Waterloo. The union of allied powers prevailed; partly due to luck and poor judgement on Napoleon’s part.

Post War

    Lord Castlereagh
It was Lord Castlereagh who, post war, suggested the country’s future policy towards continental Europe; Britain should hold the balance of power, to ensure that no one country became too powerful and likely to threaten Britain’s interests in Europe and world-wide. And that balancing has been, until recent times, the leitmotif of British foreign policy.

Expansion of British trade interests and empire was also a popular policy, especially with those industrialists with goods to sell. The peace with the Americans had been followed with a treaty of commerce

Catholic emancipation was not obtained until 1829 and reform of voting malpractices had to wait until 1832.

George was by now obese and, as ever, primarily concerned only with his own pleasure. George was not one to forgo sybaritic pleasures for the good of his country. The death of Princess Charlotte in childbirth in 1818 provided George with the chance to display his histrionic talents in an outpouring of grief for a child he had never been close to. It was not until 29th January 1820 that George succeeded his father on the throne, finally landing the role he had coveted for so long.


Perdita – Paula Byrne, Harper Perennial 2004

Fanny Burney – Claire Harman, Flamingo 2001

George III – A Personal History – Christopher Hibbert, Viking 1998

Wellington – A Personal History – Christopher Hibbert, Harper Collins 1997

The Reign of George III – J Steven Watson, Oxford University Press 1988

The Age of Reform – Sir Llewellyn Woodward, Oxford University Press 1997


[i] £2,070,000.00 using the retail price index or £27,200,000.00 using average earnings in 2010 www.measuringworth.com
[ii] Perdita - Byrne
[iii] Wellington - Hibbert

Wednesday, 15 August 2012

On This Day in the Third Reich 1936

As part of the Nazi celebrations for the Berlin Olympics Josef and Magda Goebbels throw a party for between one and two thousand guests at Peacock Island, on the Wannsee. The island was strung with lights and the whole affair was stage managed by Benno von Arent the Reich Stage Designer. The island was reached by a specially installed pontoon bridge and guests passed through an

‘aisle of honour of young female dancers holding blazing torches’[i].

The guests were met by their host in a white suit and his wife. There were three orchestras playing for the guests to dance to, after dinner. Around 10 o’ clock there was a display of shooting, which apparently frightened many of the guests. US Ambassador Dodd took this to be a form of war propaganda.

One of the guests was the wife of one of the Goebbels’ neighbours Lida Baarova, a film actress who had a very public affair with the Propaganda Minister, whose remit covered control of all films.

Throughout the Olympics government ministers were vying with each other with magnificent receptions and balls. Goering and his wife Emmy gave a garden party at Karinhall two days before and were to throw another ball in the grounds of the President of the Reichstag’s palace. On the 11th August Joachim von Ribbentrop and his wife Amelie had given a dinner for 600 guests, but the Goebbels’ all night extravaganza put the Ribbentrop’s do in the shade.

Goebbels and Reifenstahl
The Germans came top of the medals table with 33 gold medals. Hitler and Goebbels spent many hours in the reviewing stand, only to be infuriated by the success of the black athlete Jesse Owens, who would appear to overturn the Nazi’s pet racial theories. The Italians won the footballing gold medal for the second Olympics running. The games were filmed by Leni Reifenstahl. It was at the opening ceremony on 1st August that Rudolf Hess, the Fuhrer’s deputy, met the Marquis of Clydesdale, the future Duke of Hamilton who Hess was flying to meet at the end of his epic flight across to Scotland in May 1941. Clydesdale like Hess has an enthusiastic aviator.


Ambassador Dodd’s Diary – William E Dodd – Victor Gollancz 1941

Goering – Roger Manvell & Heinrich Fraenkel, Greenhill Books 2005

Hess – The Fuhrer’s Disciple – Peter Padfield – Weidenfeld and Nicholson 1991

Goebbels – Ralf Georg Reuth – Constable and Company 1993


[i] Goebbels - Reuth

Thursday, 9 August 2012

George III – A Much Maligned Monarch; Part IV

The Prince of Wales

George Prince of Wales
Prince George was an intelligent man with an appreciation of the arts. His downfall was his extreme selfishness. He supported the opposition to his father and his debts were prodigious. George had a number of affairs before marrying Mrs Fitzherbert in 1785, in breach of the Royal Marriages Act. Mrs Fitzherbert was also a Roman Catholic, which debarred George from the throne. Prince George simply denied the marriage had taken place. Many of Prince George’s vast debts were paid by his frugal father.

George decided that marriage would steady his son and Prince George married his cousin Princess Caroline of Brunswick on 8th April 1795. The couple took against each other immediately. The only child of the marriage, Charlotte, was born on the 7th January 1796. The couple separated shortly afterwards. The king treated the Princess of Wales kindly and ensured she had access to her daughter. George and Charlotte also made sure that they had close contact with their only grandchild.

Madness and Death

George’s first serious bout of madness occurred in 1788. He was unwell in the August and then in mid-October was struck down. He alternated between consciousness and fits of delirium. His madness enveloped him entirely by the 5th November. He was restrained in a strait-jacket or in sheets.

‘I am nervous. I am not ill, but I am nervous: if you would know what is the matter with me, I am nervous.’[i]

The king was transferred to Kew and on 5th December the frightening Dr Willis arrived. Willis believed in terrifying patients into submission. George was subjected to his frightening regime, being tied into a straitjacket at nights and restrained in a chair and gagged during the day.

The politicians meanwhile were fighting over control of the kingdom. The Opposition were calling for a Regency, while the government were desperate to keep the Prince of Wales from installing his friends in power. But by February the king’s health was improving. On the 17th George met with his Lord Chancellor. The third and final reading of the Regency bill was due in the Commons on the 19th, that day the Lord Chancellor announced from the Woolsack that it would be inappropriate to proceed with the reading. George met with his Prime Minister on 24th February. The country rejoiced at the king’s recovery.

On his recovery George was unhappy to discover the Prince of Wales’ involvement in the crisis. During the king’s illness it was discovered that the king was devoting £14,000[ii] a year, of his £80,000[iii] per annum income, to charity, well over the tithe recommended by the church.

Bust of Dr Willis
In February 1801 the madness returned and George prayed that he might die rather than lose his sanity again. Again George was placed in the care of Dr Willis and his cohorts. By 14th March George was well enough to receive the seals of office from Pitt as he resigned. Willis and his men were dismissed on 17th April, but on the 18th they detained him at Kew. On 19th May George refused to sign anymore documents unless he was released and gained his freedom. He had already told the Reverend Thomas Willis[iv], who he had quite liked,

‘Sir, I will never forgive you whilst I live’[v].

In January1804 George again suffered another bout of madness and the Prime Minister, Lord Addington called in the Willis family. But George had made his sons promise him that he would never again be placed in their care. The Duke of Kent and the Duke of Cumberland physically interposed themselves between the Willis family and their father. Even so the replacement doctor restrained the king. George was considered well enough to allow a change of prime ministers, much to the surprise of the Prince of Wales, again angling for a Regency;

‘So extra-ordinary a circumstance as a King of England whilst exercising his Regal powers being kept under any personal restraint.’[vi]

    Frederick Duke of York
On 20th July George was moved to Windsor. This latest occurrence of George’s illness caused an unfortunate permanent rift between himself and Queen Charlotte. They were never to live together again. 

George developed a cataract in his right eye in 1804 and the following year another started in his left eye. He could no longer see when the ink in his pen had run out and the king was finally persuaded to take a secretary. George shared Sir Herbert Taylor, the Duke of York’s secretary with his son. George’s Golden Jubilee was celebrated on 25th October 1810. The king was immensely popular with his subjects, in contrast to the unpopularity of the Prince of Wales.

In 1810 George was badly affected by the final illness of his youngest daughter Princess Amelia. She was dying of tuberculosis. By the time of his jubilee it was obvious that he was unwell again and on 19th December the Prince of Wales was informed by Spencer Perceval of his determination to introduce legislation to establish a Regency. On 5th February 1811 the Regency was officially installed.

George in his last years
George spent the rest of his life in a suite of rooms at Windsor Castle, under the care of Queen Charlotte and the Archbishop of Canterbury. After Charlotte’s death her place was taken by the Duke of York. It cannot have helped the king’s sanity when the Willis family took care of the king again. Unfortunately for him and his family George’s strong constitution kept him alive until 29th January 1820, having outlived his wife, numerous children and his granddaughter Princess Charlotte.

There was a national outpouring of grief, exceeding that even of the death of Princess Charlotte. The funeral took place on Wednesday 16th February 1620. All the shops in London were shut and the churches were full; non-conformist churches and synagogues held services too. George’s subjects appreciated their monarch’s unpretentious virtues and simple pieties. The Times commented

‘Thousands of affectionate subjects, who had thronged to the last obsequies of their King, not from the idle curiosity of seeing a grand exhibition, but to shed a last tear over the grave of a father and a friend.’[vii]


Fanny Burney – Claire Harman, Flamingo 2001

George III – A Personal History – Christopher Hibbert, Viking 1998

The Reign of George III – J Steven Watson – Oxford University Press 1988

The Age of Reform – Sir Llewellyn Woodward, Oxford University Press 1997

George III – Christopher Wright, British Library 2004


[i] Fanny Burney - Harman
[ii] £1,150,000.00 using the retail price index or £14,500,000.00 using average earnings in 2010 www.measuringworth.com
[iii] £6,570,000.00 using the retail price index or £83,100,000.00 using average earnings in 2010 www.measuringworth.com
[iv] A son of Dr Willis
[v] George III - Wright
[vi] Ibid

Thursday, 2 August 2012

George III – A Much Maligned Monarch; Part III

Family and Other Tribulations

Following the disastrous marriages of two of his brothers George III forced the Royal Marriages Act through parliament in 1772. This act required the king’s consent to make any marriage of the king’s close family legal.

On his accession George had agreed a civil list of £800,000[i] per annum (£70,000 less than his grandfather). Originally George paid himself £48,000[ii] salary, rising throughout the years of his reign. The result was that both the king and queen fell into debt and had to make numerous applications to Parliament. The court was despised by Society as being dowdy and George’s subjects laughed at his frugality.

George spent his money, not only on his collections, but also on building; a house was purchased as a family home on the Mall, from the illegitimate son of the Duke of Buckingham, a lot of work was also done at Windsor and elsewhere. George supported Eton, founded by a far distant ancestor, Henry VI, where George’s birthday is still celebrated as a holiday

George enjoyed stag hunting and was interested in farming, hence his soubriquet Farmer George. He set up farms at Windsor and Kew. In 1768 he funded the foundation of the Royal Academy of the Arts and arranged for the housing of the new academy. George gave the astronomer Herschel and his sister pensions and funded to the tune of £4,000[iii] a forty foot telescope at Slough for Herschel. George was a frequent visitor.

The king was supportive of John Harrison’s attempts to find a way of measuring longitude and allowed H5 to be tested at his Kew Observatory and when the Board of Longitude failed to pay the prize monies on a technicality George set in train the process through Parliament whereby Harrison was paid.

George played the harpsichord, organ and flute. The king was on the committee for and regularly attended the concerts of ancient music. George’s grandfather had been a patron of Handel’s and the young Prince George met the composer. George owned a harpsichord that had been Handel’s as well as many of the composer’s original scores, including the Messiah.

George rarely travelled and never left the country, unlike his grandfather and great-grandfather. In 1788 he visited Cheltenham to drink the waters and in1789 after recovering from his first bout of madness stayed in a house in Weymouth, loaned by his brother the Duke of Gloucester. George later purchased the house and the royal family regularly visited the town to benefit from the sea bathing, just becoming fashionable.

The three youngest princesses

The father of fourteen children, George loved children. Queen Charlotte gave birth to the couple’s first child, George, in 1762. The young Prince of Wales was kept at home, but his brothers were sent away, several to Germany and William was sent into the navy. In 1783 the four year old Prince Octavius died and George was devastated. The princesses were kept close, which they found claustrophobic as they reached adulthood.

A Neighbourly War

By 1793 England was at war with the revolutionary government in France and this war was to last until five years before George’s death, by which time his mind was too deranged to appreciate the peace that enveloped Europe. The toppling of the monarchy in France was not appreciated by the king of England, who welcomed the outbreak of hostilities. Pitt legislated in Ireland allowing Catholics to hold military commissions up to the rank of Colonel. Ireland had long been a recruiting ground for the English army, since Charles 1’s attempts to raise an army to fight the Parliamentarians.

The revolution in France encouraged the radicals, espousing the French model as a blueprint for Britain. This coupled with widespread economic distress brought people out onto the streets in protest. Pitt introduced a series of repressive measures, including suspending habeas corpus, to counter the perceived threat.

Pitt’s house was attacked and in October 1795 the king’s coach was mobbed as George made his way to the House of Lords. A gun was discharged in the vicinity of the king’s person, but failed to hit anyone. The king was booed on his return journey and the coach itself was attacked as it was being returned to the mews. Despite the tumult George read his speech from the throne as if there was nothing wrong. The following evening the king and queen attended the Covent Garden theatre receiving an enthusiastic welcome. The national anthem was played six times.

Politics and War

In 1798 the French planned an invasion of Britain’s Achilles heel, Ireland where disaffected Catholics and poor Protestants were believed to be ready to support the French. The planned uprising and invasion failed miserably, but brought Pitt round to the idea that Ireland needed to be joined to the Union, which was enacted in 1801. The resulting mayhem is still causing problems over 200 years later. Pitt wanted to enact Catholic emancipation as well. This was a step too far for the country and the king.

George was not anti-Catholic to any great degree, but his great-Grandfather had received the crown of England to avoid a Catholic succession. George had sworn at his accession to ensure that Catholics had no part to play in public life. At the end of January 1801, in accord with his non-Irish subjects, George let it be known that he would regard anyone who voted for emancipation of Catholics as his enemy. George was of a practical turn of mind as far as religion was concerned, devoting a large part of his income to charities. He also gave monies to improve prison buildings, supporting John Howard the penal reformer.

Lord Addington
After appointing Lord Addington to replace Pitt, who resigned over the emancipation of Catholics, George fell ill and did not recover until March. The Peace of Amiens was signed at the end of the month, as hostilities with the French paused. George believed this was only a temporary respite and so it proved. War broke out again in May 1803 and there was an invasion scare. In October George reviewed 27,000 volunteers in Hyde Park.

The threat of invasion was eliminated two years later, when Nelson’s fleet annihilated the French at Trafalgar in October. Nelson had been snubbed at court, after his victory at the Battle of the Nile in early August 1798, because the king disapproved of his liaison with Lady Hamilton.

At this juncture the Prince of Wales demanded to serve in the army and was refused by his father. In response Prince George published his correspondence with his father in the papers, infuriating George. In 1804 George again fell ill, but recovered in time to deal with a political squall. Addington was not able to control the Commons, particularly when Pitt allied himself with Charles Fox. The war against the French under the Emperor Napoleon, was not going well. Pitt, replacing Addington, had to contend with Fox and the Whigs, with whom he now fell out with.

The Russian-Austrian coalition, fostered by Pitt, was defeated at Austerlitz on 2nd December 1805. This defeat was soon followed by another catastrophe; Pitt died at the age of 46 on 23rd January 1806. Lord Grenville became Prime Minister, while Fox became Foreign Secretary in the 'Ministry of All the Talents'. George was very relaxed about this appointment saying to Fox when they met

‘Mr Fox, I little thought that you and I should ever meet again in this place.’[iv]

But Fox too was ill and he died on 13th September. He and George had disagreed over Fox’s desire for peace with France, but George remarked

‘Little did I think I should ever live to regret Mr Fox’s death.’[v]

The Duke of Portland

Now Grenville proposed to extend to Catholics on the mainland the concession to hold commissions. George discovered that the proposed legislation approved the holding of rank above that of colonel and objected to the proposals. The government resigned and an old friend of George’s, the Duke of Portland, became Prime Minister. He served George for over two years resigning shortly before his death. Portland was replaced by Spencer Perceval.


George III – A Personal History – Christopher Hibbert, Viking 1998

The Reign of George III – J Steven Watson – Oxford University Press 1988

Longitude – Dava Sobel, Fourth Estate Ltd 1996

George III – Christopher Wright, British Library 2004


[i] £94,300,000.00 using the retail price index or £1,240,000,000.00 using average earnings in 2010 www.measuringworth.com
[ii] £5,660,000.00 using the retail price index or £74,500,000.00 using average earnings in 2010 www.measuringworth.com
[iii] £390,000.00 using the retail price index or £5,310,000.00 using average earnings in 2010 www.measuringworth.com
[iv] George III - Wright
[v] Ibid