Monday, 24 April 2017

The Spare Prince

Henri, Duc d'Orleans
The Heir Plus Two Spares

François I, king of France, and his wife Queen Claude[i] were married on 18th May 1514. Their eldest child Louise was born in 1515 but died two years later[ii], Charlotte was born in 1516[iii]. After the birth of her two eldest daughters and worried by her failure to produce an heir for the throne of France Claude made a vow to François de Paul in front of Père Binet, general of the Order of Minims that if she was blessed with a son she would call him François and make representations to Pope Leo X to have the friar canonised[iv]. Her son François was born on 28th February 1518;

‘On the last day of February 1517, the good, virtuous and very perfect Queen of France gave birth to her first son, Dauphin of Viennois, in the town of Amboise, which was the occasion for great rejoicings throughout the realm.’[v]

François was followed on 31st March 1519 by Henri[vi], Duc d’Orléans. The last of the couple’s boys was Charles, Duke of Angoulême born on 22nd January 1522. Two of their daughters also survived the perils of infancy; Madeleine born 10th August 1520, and lastly Marguerite in June 1523.

The queen, who was ignored by her husband, her mother-in-law Louise of Savoy and the court despite having been one of the greatest heiresses of her time[vii], had little bar embroidery and her children to amuse herself. The children were brought up at the Château d’Amboise. Claude, who suffered from ill-health, died 20th July 1524 when Henri was six.

Trouble Abroad

Charles V
The newly crowned François I had a high opinion of himself, which led him to play games out of his league. François had ambitions in Italy; his marriage to Claude had given him a claim to the Duchy of Milan[viii]. Immediately upon becoming king he led an army over the Alps to take Milan from the Hapsburg backed Sforza family. The French won the Battle of Marignano in September 1515[ix].

François’ first setback came when he put his name forward to become Holy Roman Emperor  in place of Maximilian I who died in January 1519. Maximilian’s grandson Charles V was chosen instead. This was a period of change in Europe; to the north and south of France the new Holy Roman Emperor was flexing his muscles and to many of his contemporaries it looked as though he was trying to dominate the world let alone Europe. The ruthless Charles also took the throne of Spain from his mother Queen Juana[x].

Along with the dispute in Italy the issue of the Duchy of Burgundy lay between the two rulers[xi]. Charles wanted to include the rich lands of Burgundy into his empire, creating a foothold in France that would always be a threat to the French.

Battle of Pavia
For centuries to come one of France’s major concerns was to be the encirclement of the country by the Hapsburgs. Over the channel was the rising star of the English popinjay Henry VIII who was to change and change about as the fancy took him, at times allying with Charles V, at others with François, playing one off against the other.

The attack against the Sforzas wasn’t as masterly a step as it may have seemed to François at the time as it brought him into collision with Charles who had his own ambitions in Italy. He allied himself with Leo X. Two years later Charles’ forces won back Milan from the French. The French army pursued the imperial troops south and laid siege to Pavia causing the imperial captain the Marquis of Pescara to exclaim;

‘We were defeated, soon we shall be victorious’[xii]

And so it proved. The two sides clashed in February 1525 at the Battle of Pavia which was a crushing defeat for François who was captured in an ambush by over 1000 imperial arquebusiers.


Francois I
Arriving in Spain in the summer of 1525 François was greeted as a king, he wrote to his mother;

‘Madame. To let you know the extent of my misfortune, nothing remains to me but my honour and my life which are safe.’[xiii]

But François did not bear up well under imprisonment and fell into a depression and stopped eating. An abscess in his nose was causing the doctors concern. Worried that he might lose this valuable asset Charles hurried to his prisoner’s sickbed and then granted permission for François’ sister Marguerite to minister to her brother.

Charles refused to accept a ransom for François and, working to regain her son’s freedom, Louise of Savoy acting as Regent did her best to break up the anti-French alliance. On 30th August the Treaty of the More was signed with England[xiv]. Henry VIII would use his influence to free François who would pay the English two million écus[xv] in instalments.

By the following January François had agreed the terms of the Treaty of Madrid. He gave Burgundy and Tournai to Charles and resigned his rights in Italy. In return François would return to France as an ally of Charles[xvi]. In return François was allowed to return to France and his two elder sons would take his place. He was affianced to Charles’ sister Eleanor of Austria on 20th January.

Spanish Internment

Bidassoa River
On 17th March 1526 the two older French princes Henri and François exchanged their lives in France for the rigours of dour Spanish fortresses; they were sureties for their father. François preferred his boisterous youngest son, so perhaps he did not miss the Dauphin or Henri? They were escorted into Spain by their grandmother Louise of Savoy and Henry VIII’s ambassador who reported to Cardinal Wolsey;

‘After dinner I was brought to see the Dauphin, and his brother Harry; both did embrace me and took me by the hand….the King’s godson is the quicker spirit and the bolder, as seemeth by his behaviour.’[xvii]

After an exchange of the two young boys and their father on a raft on the Bidassoa river the French princes were originally housed at Vitoria staying with their new stepmother along with a household of French servants including their governor, tutor and seventy attendants. But conditions for the children changed for the worse as François reneged on his agreement with Charles. He repudiated the treaty and the estates of Burgundy endorsed the king’s decision as the deputies declared their wish to remain French.

The Dauphin and Henri were moved to a castle near Valladolid then in February 1527, claiming there had been a plot to free the two French princes they were moved further south to a castle near Palencia[xviii]. Some of their attendants were returned to France. In October 1527 Charles gave permission for Henry VIII’s emissaries to visit François and Henri; their tutor Benedetto Taglicarno reported that;

‘He could not enough praise the Duke of Orléans of wit, capacity and great will to learn, and of a prudence and gravity passing his age, beside treatable gentleness and nobleness of mind, whereof daily he avoweth to see great sparks.’[xix]

In 1529, following the discovery near Palencia of a Frenchman Charles ordered that the two princes be moved yet again to the formidable fortress of Pedraza. By this time all but one of their attendants, a dwarf, had all been taken from them and allegedly sent to man galleys. A French agent reported that whenever the boys were allowed out they were accompanied by large groups of soldiers, Henri was only allowed to ride a donkey held by two men, because of his numerous escape attempts. Henri also cursed the Spaniards at every opportunity.


Martyrs and Murderers – Stuart Carroll, Oxford University Press 2009

Catherine de Medici – Leonie Frieda, a Phoenix Paperback 2003

Charles V – Harald Kleinschmidt, Sutton Publishing 2004

French Renaissance Monarchy – RJ Knecht, Longman Group 1996

The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France – RJ Knecht, Fontana Press 1996

Catherine de’ Medici – RJ Knecht, Pearson Education Ltd 1998

A History of France – David Potter, The MacMillan Press 1995

Prince of the Renaissance – Desmond Seward, MacMillan Publishing 1973

Emperor Charles V – James D Tracey, Cambridge University Press 2010

Henri II – H Noel Williams, Methuen and Co 1910 (reprint 2016)


[i] Daughter of Louis XII and his second wife Anne of Brittany
[ii] She was engaged to Charles V, while he was still just king of Spain, while she was in the cradle
[iii] She died in 1524 and was engaged to Charles V when her sister died
[iv] Francis of Paola had already been beatified; François and Claude made the necessary representations and St Francis was canonised the following year
[v] Henri II - Williams
[vi] Named as a compliment to the king of England who was his godfather
[vii] Her mother had wanted to marry Claude to Charles V
[ix] The high point of his military career
[xi] Charles father Philip the Handsome had inherited much of the duchy on the death of his mother Mary of Burgundy. The duchy had been seized by the French following the death of Mary’s father Charles the Bold  
[xii] The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France - Knecht
[xiii] Prince of the Renaissance - Seward
[xiv] Negotiations had been interrupted by the Battle of Pavia
[xv] In 2015 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £1,345,000,000.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £13,620,000,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £41,660,000,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £616,700,000,000.00
[xvi] Deserting his former comrades in arms, the Duke of Guelders, the king of Navarre and Robert de la Marck
[xvii] Catherine de Medici - Frieda
[xviii] About 100 miles north of Madrid
[xix] Catherine de Medici - Frieda

Monday, 17 April 2017

A Duchess of Burgundy VIII

Sandal Castle from whence Richard of York rode out to give battle at Wakefield

Changing Circumstances

In England the Yorkist fight to the death with Margaret and her supporters was dealt a grievous blow with the death of Richard of York on the penultimate day of 1460 at the battle of Wakefield[i]. The Lancastrian army returned south leaving a thirty mile wide swathe of destruction in their wake in;

‘A whirlwind from the north….a plague of locusts covering the whole surface of the earth.’[ii]

Following the news Edward, now Duke of York in his father’s stead, prepared to return home from Calais, to reclaim the York family lands. The Lancastrians’ success persuaded the anti-Burgundian faction at the French court that now was a good time to attack Burgundy while their allies were laid low.

Cloistered in Genappe with Charles of Charolais, the Dauphin was waiting for his father to die. His spies at the French court kept him informed of his father’s doings. Louis was secretly allying himself with the Earl of Warwick and Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. Sforza was hoping to persuade the English to attack France and divert them from attacking his territories.

Countryside around le Quesnoy
In January 1461 Charles of Charolais decided the time was ripe to attack his enemies, Antoine and Jean de Croy. Charles levelled charges that the de Croys were spreading a rumour that Charles was intending to hand Louis over to Charles VII. He demanded that Philip take action against the pair of them. Tired and ill, Philip tried to stop the quarrel and the government of Burgundy was paralysed by the fight.

Unable to look after himself, Philip called Isabella to his side in Abbeville once again and she prayed for his recovery as the doctors’ remedies were not working. Isabella ordered the bells of Abbeville to be rung continuously and exhorted the citizens to pray for the duke. By the end of January Philip had recovered sufficiently to drink almond flavoured milk and broth. At which point Isabella returned to her son, daughter-in-law and granddaughter at le Quesnoy[iii].

A Brace of New Kings

George Plantagenent
It was not until late January that Edward of York and the Earl of Warwick sailed for England with two thousand English and Burgundian soldiers On 4th March the English parliament proclaimed Edward of York the rightful king of England[iv]. Edward and his army chased after the Lancastrians, meeting and defeating them at the battle of Towton on 29th March 1461. Margaret, Henry VI and Prince Edward fled into exile[v].

Edward’s brothers George and Richard came to stay with Isabella in Brussels while the excitement was ongoing in England. She treated the two young men to the splendours of the Burgundian court while leaving no stone unturned to persuade their brother of the advantages of an Anglo-Burgundian alliance. Warwick, meanwhile, was pressing for an alliance with France.

There was turmoil in the relations between Philip and his royal guest and the Duke of Milan’s envoy Prospero di Camogli commented;

‘Every day the danger grows that this hostility will uncover itself. On the side of the Dauphin only his needs hold it hidden; on the side of the Duke, only the opportunity offered by the Dauphin’s presence if war with France should break out.’[vi]

On 22nd July 1461 Louis’ greatest wish was granted; his father died and he finally became Louis XI, King of France. He departed for France without a word of gratitude to his host and hostess. As king Louis was to continue the anti-Burgundian policies he had pressed for during his father’s reign despite the support he had received from Philip.

To appease Philip he appointed the post of Grand Master of the Royal Household to Antoine de Croy. Philip and Isabella attended Louis’ coronation in Rheims and then followed the court to Paris for the coronation banquet where Philip far outshone the habitually quietly dressed king.


Philip the Good 
n July 1462 one of Philip’s servants, Jehan Coustain, premier valet de chambre, was accused of attempting to poison Charles. Antoine de Croy was responsible for Coustain’s elevation
[vii]. It is not known whether the accusation was true or false but Charles used the accusation to bring down one of de Croy’s men, leaving the de Croys believing that Charles would stop at nothing to ruin them.

Louis was trying to create an Anglo-French alliance and persuaded Philip to smooth his path. He also used Warwick’s services to get into Edward’s good books. In the autumn of 1463 a meeting between the old enemies was arranged at St Omer. Isabella was kept away from the meeting which ended in a one year truce. Louis also hoped to inveigle Edward into marrying a French princess.

Louis’ opinion of Philip was very unflattering;

‘He was a prince who always had his own way, never sharing power with a companion or equal, and that he was not of great intellect.’[viii]

He managed to persuade Philip to sell him the lands on the Somme granted by Charles VII; Charles was livid that his father had sold off some of his inheritance and by October arguments between father and son had reached fever pitch. Charles departed for his lands in Holland until summonsed back to court by his father.

Isabella was concerned that Louis was distracting Philip from his crusade; It can only have been piety ruling Isabella’s actions, as a trip to the Holy Land by an sick old man, at the end of his life, would not have been beneficial. Louis’ plans to marry off Edward was stymied when, in May 1464, the English king married Elizabeth Woodville, an action that caused a breach between him and his chief supporter Warwick.

Deaths in the Family

Margaret of York
The following year saw the death of Countess Isabella on 25th September 1465. Within weeks Isabella had sent an envoy to England to discuss the possibility of a marriage between her son and Margaret of York, sister of Edward IV. Louis XI tried to stop the marriage negotiations by offering his daughter Anne, then four years old, as a bride[ix]. The French offer was refused.

Isabella was residing at La Motte-au-Bois when Philip died alone on 15th June 1467 at the Princehof. The last few years the married couple had spent apart, except for when Philip was ill. Charles was in Ghent and he was immediately sent for. Isabella did not return to Bruges until 18th June to find her son bewailing the fact that he had left his father alone in his last hours.

On the 28th the town of Ghent challenged Charles’ right to rule and the following morning Charles visited the town where he was faced with demands to overturn the constraints forced on them by his father. Charles lost his temper and slapped one of the town’s representatives. Other towns flared up into violence and Charles responded with draconic severity. Isabella attempted to ameliorate her son’s brutal responses to opposition, not always successfully.

Charles was determined to complete the English alliance by his marriage to Edward IV’s sister and on 9th July 1468 Margaret of York became his third wife. His new wife retained her right to the English throne and Edward promised 200,000 crowns[x] dowry. Edward proclaimed that his sister was to marry;

‘One of the mightiest princes of the world that beareth no crown.’[xi]

After the wedding Isabella returned to La Motte-au-Bois where she supported a diplomatic resolution to the conflict between France and Burgundy. Isabella’s attempts to work round the problems caused by Charles’ violent reactions to events were often stymied by her son.

The plague had been prevalent throughout Picardy, Brabant Flanders and Hainault throughout the summer and autumn. When Charles visited his mother in October he was concerned about her appearance. She died in her son’s arms on 17th December 1471.

Philip might have appreciated his dynasty’s end even if Isabella would not have done. The reckless Charles the Bold died young, leaving his duchy to his daughter Mary who married Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor.


The Hundred Years War – Alfred Burne, Folio Society 2005

Edward IV – Keith Dockray, Fonthill Media Limited 2015

Wars of the Roses – John Gillingham, Weidenfeld Paperbacks 1990

The Reign of Henry VI – RA Griffiths, Sutton Publishing Ltd 1998

The Fifteenth Century – EF Jacob, Oxford University Press 1997

Louis XI – Paul Murray Kendall, Sphere Books Ltd 1974

Margaret of Anjou – Helen E Maurer, Boydell Press 2003

Isabel of Burgundy – Aline S Taylor, Madison Books 2001

Philip the Good – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2014

Charles the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2002


[i] At Sandal Magna; the Duke of Somerset launched a surprise attack
[ii] Wars of the Roses - Gillingham
[iii] The duke’s summer residence
[iv] Parliament claimed that Henry VI had authorised the attack on Richard of York, who was acting as Protector of the Realm. By doing so Henry had broken his oath and forfeited his right to be king
[v] In 1470 Warwick, who had quarrelled with Edward, forced a reversal of the situation, sending Edward into exile again and returned Henry VI to his throne.
[vi] Louis XI - Kendall
[vii] Coustain was deep in his confidence
[viii] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[ix] Her dowry was to include Ponthieu and Champagne
[x] In 2015 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £136,800,000.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £1,222,000,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £4,752,000,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £84,910,000,000.00
[xi] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor