Monday, 17 April 2017

A Duchess of Burgundy VIII

Sandal Castle from whence Richard of York rode out to give battle at Wakefield

Changing Circumstances

In England the Yorkist fight to the death with Margaret and her supporters was dealt a grievous blow with the death of Richard of York on the penultimate day of 1460 at the battle of Wakefield[i]. The Lancastrian army returned south leaving a thirty mile wide swathe of destruction in their wake in;

‘A whirlwind from the north….a plague of locusts covering the whole surface of the earth.’[ii]

Following the news Edward, now Duke of York in his father’s stead, prepared to return home from Calais, to reclaim the York family lands. The Lancastrians’ success persuaded the anti-Burgundian faction at the French court that now was a good time to attack Burgundy while their allies were laid low.

Cloistered in Genappe with Charles of Charolais, the Dauphin was waiting for his father to die. His spies at the French court kept him informed of his father’s doings. Louis was secretly allying himself with the Earl of Warwick and Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. Sforza was hoping to persuade the English to attack France and divert them from attacking his territories.

Countryside around le Quesnoy
In January 1461 Charles of Charolais decided the time was ripe to attack his enemies, Antoine and Jean de Croy. Charles levelled charges that the de Croys were spreading a rumour that Charles was intending to hand Louis over to Charles VII. He demanded that Philip take action against the pair of them. Tired and ill, Philip tried to stop the quarrel and the government of Burgundy was paralysed by the fight.

Unable to look after himself, Philip called Isabella to his side in Abbeville once again and she prayed for his recovery as the doctors’ remedies were not working. Isabella ordered the bells of Abbeville to be rung continuously and exhorted the citizens to pray for the duke. By the end of January Philip had recovered sufficiently to drink almond flavoured milk and broth. At which point Isabella returned to her son, daughter-in-law and granddaughter at le Quesnoy[iii].

A Brace of New Kings

George Plantagenent
It was not until late January that Edward of York and the Earl of Warwick sailed for England with two thousand English and Burgundian soldiers On 4th March the English parliament proclaimed Edward of York the rightful king of England[iv]. Edward and his army chased after the Lancastrians, meeting and defeating them at the battle of Towton on 29th March 1461. Margaret, Henry VI and Prince Edward fled into exile[v].

Edward’s brothers George and Richard came to stay with Isabella in Brussels while the excitement was ongoing in England. She treated the two young men to the splendours of the Burgundian court while leaving no stone unturned to persuade their brother of the advantages of an Anglo-Burgundian alliance. Warwick, meanwhile, was pressing for an alliance with France.

There was turmoil in the relations between Philip and his royal guest and the Duke of Milan’s envoy Prospero di Camogli commented;

‘Every day the danger grows that this hostility will uncover itself. On the side of the Dauphin only his needs hold it hidden; on the side of the Duke, only the opportunity offered by the Dauphin’s presence if war with France should break out.’[vi]

On 22nd July 1461 Louis’ greatest wish was granted; his father died and he finally became Louis XI, King of France. He departed for France without a word of gratitude to his host and hostess. As king Louis was to continue the anti-Burgundian policies he had pressed for during his father’s reign despite the support he had received from Philip.

To appease Philip he appointed the post of Grand Master of the Royal Household to Antoine de Croy. Philip and Isabella attended Louis’ coronation in Rheims and then followed the court to Paris for the coronation banquet where Philip far outshone the habitually quietly dressed king.


Philip the Good 
n July 1462 one of Philip’s servants, Jehan Coustain, premier valet de chambre, was accused of attempting to poison Charles. Antoine de Croy was responsible for Coustain’s elevation
[vii]. It is not known whether the accusation was true or false but Charles used the accusation to bring down one of de Croy’s men, leaving the de Croys believing that Charles would stop at nothing to ruin them.

Louis was trying to create an Anglo-French alliance and persuaded Philip to smooth his path. He also used Warwick’s services to get into Edward’s good books. In the autumn of 1463 a meeting between the old enemies was arranged at St Omer. Isabella was kept away from the meeting which ended in a one year truce. Louis also hoped to inveigle Edward into marrying a French princess.

Louis’ opinion of Philip was very unflattering;

‘He was a prince who always had his own way, never sharing power with a companion or equal, and that he was not of great intellect.’[viii]

He managed to persuade Philip to sell him the lands on the Somme granted by Charles VII; Charles was livid that his father had sold off some of his inheritance and by October arguments between father and son had reached fever pitch. Charles departed for his lands in Holland until summonsed back to court by his father.

Isabella was concerned that Louis was distracting Philip from his crusade; It can only have been piety ruling Isabella’s actions, as a trip to the Holy Land by an sick old man, at the end of his life, would not have been beneficial. Louis’ plans to marry off Edward was stymied when, in May 1464, the English king married Elizabeth Woodville, an action that caused a breach between him and his chief supporter Warwick.

Deaths in the Family

Margaret of York
The following year saw the death of Countess Isabella on 25th September 1465. Within weeks Isabella had sent an envoy to England to discuss the possibility of a marriage between her son and Margaret of York, sister of Edward IV. Louis XI tried to stop the marriage negotiations by offering his daughter Anne, then four years old, as a bride[ix]. The French offer was refused.

Isabella was residing at La Motte-au-Bois when Philip died alone on 15th June 1467 at the Princehof. The last few years the married couple had spent apart, except for when Philip was ill. Charles was in Ghent and he was immediately sent for. Isabella did not return to Bruges until 18th June to find her son bewailing the fact that he had left his father alone in his last hours.

On the 28th the town of Ghent challenged Charles’ right to rule and the following morning Charles visited the town where he was faced with demands to overturn the constraints forced on them by his father. Charles lost his temper and slapped one of the town’s representatives. Other towns flared up into violence and Charles responded with draconic severity. Isabella attempted to ameliorate her son’s brutal responses to opposition, not always successfully.

Charles was determined to complete the English alliance by his marriage to Edward IV’s sister and on 9th July 1468 Margaret of York became his third wife. His new wife retained her right to the English throne and Edward promised 200,000 crowns[x] dowry. Edward proclaimed that his sister was to marry;

‘One of the mightiest princes of the world that beareth no crown.’[xi]

After the wedding Isabella returned to La Motte-au-Bois where she supported a diplomatic resolution to the conflict between France and Burgundy. Isabella’s attempts to work round the problems caused by Charles’ violent reactions to events were often stymied by her son.

The plague had been prevalent throughout Picardy, Brabant Flanders and Hainault throughout the summer and autumn. When Charles visited his mother in October he was concerned about her appearance. She died in her son’s arms on 17th December 1471.

Philip might have appreciated his dynasty’s end even if Isabella would not have done. The reckless Charles the Bold died young, leaving his duchy to his daughter Mary who married Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor.


The Hundred Years War – Alfred Burne, Folio Society 2005

Edward IV – Keith Dockray, Fonthill Media Limited 2015

Wars of the Roses – John Gillingham, Weidenfeld Paperbacks 1990

The Reign of Henry VI – RA Griffiths, Sutton Publishing Ltd 1998

The Fifteenth Century – EF Jacob, Oxford University Press 1997

Louis XI – Paul Murray Kendall, Sphere Books Ltd 1974

Margaret of Anjou – Helen E Maurer, Boydell Press 2003

Isabel of Burgundy – Aline S Taylor, Madison Books 2001

Philip the Good – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2014

Charles the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2002


[i] At Sandal Magna; the Duke of Somerset launched a surprise attack
[ii] Wars of the Roses - Gillingham
[iii] The duke’s summer residence
[iv] Parliament claimed that Henry VI had authorised the attack on Richard of York, who was acting as Protector of the Realm. By doing so Henry had broken his oath and forfeited his right to be king
[v] In 1470 Warwick, who had quarrelled with Edward, forced a reversal of the situation, sending Edward into exile again and returned Henry VI to his throne.
[vi] Louis XI - Kendall
[vii] Coustain was deep in his confidence
[viii] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[ix] Her dowry was to include Ponthieu and Champagne
[x] In 2015 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £136,800,000.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £1,222,000,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £4,752,000,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £84,910,000,000.00
[xi] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor

Monday, 10 April 2017

A Duchess of Burgundy VII

Isabella of Burgundy
A Family Quarrel

On 17th January 1457 an argument broke out between Philip and Charles after Charles refused to accept one of the detested de Croy family into his household as chamberlain. Philip attacked his son with a dagger; Charles fled with his mother to the chambers of their guest, the Dauphin. The French Dauphin had chosen to exile himself in Burgundy after being banished from court after making a marriage unsanctioned by his father.

Angered that the family dispute had been aired before the heir to the French throne, Philip attempted to reign in his temper, telling Louis[i];

‘I will show Charles that I am his father – that I can appoint a little valet if I please! And better would it have been for his mother, if instead of burdening you with her woes, to have slept a long sleep!’[ii]

Louis asked Philip to pardon his son but Philip refused. Charles flung himself out of the castle and rode off to Tendermonde. His father too disappeared into the bitter January night. Louis and his followers rode out to seek for his uncle who had left without an escort. Philip had got himself lost after sending a message to the de Croy family ordering them to meet him at Halle. Philip was finally found in Genappe, where he was being tended for an injured leg.

The incident caused an estrangement between Charles and his father and Isabella sided with her son. Philip was persuaded by the de Croys that Isabella was the cause of the friction between father and son. So by the spring of 1457 Isabella was spending most of her time at La Motte-au-Bois.

February 1457 saw the birth of Mary of Burgundy, who was born on 13th. Charles went out hunting while Philip ignored the event, asking only to be informed if the baby turned out to be a boy. Louis asked that the baby be named Marie after his mother. Mary was baptised at Coudenberg and Louis stood as her Godfather. Chastellain recorded that;

‘Duke Philip chose not attend the ceremony as it was only for a girl.’[iii]


Louis chose to ingratiate himself with the de Croy family, to ensure that Philip did not send him back to France, whence he was determined not to return save as king. He also befriended Charles, an easy matter for the easy-going friendly Dauphin. Their joint love of hunting created a bond between the two men despite the ten year age difference.

During the summer Philip took Louis on a tour of his lands which Louis put to good use noting all the strategic landmarks and strongholds. Like his father Louis had every intention of making Burgundy part of France once. again

Once Joan of Arc’s conviction had been overturned by Rome Charles VII grew more belligerent in his position vis-à-vis Burgundy. He demanded that Louis give an account of himself and his failure to return to court and that in default Philip was to arrest his royal visitor. Louis paid largesse to all those who gave him services (ultimately paid for by Philip) and created a swelling of support for the French Dauphin. Short of money he wrote asking for his wife’s dowry;

‘We believed that by Christmas past we would have had money from there [Savoy]….but it has all come to nothing. This puts us in a bad way, for, trusting to have had the money, we have borrowed from a bank the sum of 1000 francs[iv].’[v]

He had borrowed money from Flemish banks to pay, inter alia, for the spies he kept around his father; the chief of whom was Antoinette de Maingnelais, his father’s mistress.

Isabella seized the chance and permanently retired to La Motte-au-Bois in the midsummer of 1457. Isabella’s self-imposed exile was saddened by the news of the death of her nephew John of Antioch, who had lived with her when he was fourteen[vi]. He had been poisoned (five of his attendants also died)[vii]. John had also been a favourite of Philip’s who had made him a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece and arranged for John’s marriage to the King of Cyprusdaughter.

France v Burgundy

Charles of Charolais
At La Motte-au-Bois Isabella amused herself by trying to arrange a marriage between one of her nieces and one of Richard of York’s daughters. York was looking to strengthen his power base even as Queen Margaret was determined to keep York away from the king. Consolidating her power Margaret was able to have the Chancellor and Treasurer replaced as  Yorkists were removed from positions of power at court. Margaret was also able to obtain aid from her uncles Charles.

Throughout early 1458 rumours spread that the French were preparing for an assault on Burgundy once they’d finished fighting the English in what little was left of the Angevin empire in France. Burgundian towns were overrun and others threatened by Charles VII’s armies[viii].

‘Daily there ran new wild rumours; everybody kept his ear to the wind and no one knew whether to expect peace or war.’[ix]

Beginning to lose confidence in the advice of the pro-French de Croys, Philip was stressed out by the situation and turned to amusing himself with hunting, in court revelries and sex. The summer of 1458 saw both Philip and King Charles fall ill; Philip had a fever brought on from over exerting himself playing tennis, while Charles had an ulcerated leg which had enfeebled his constitution[x]. Philip suffered a relapse on 17th June and fell into a coma lasting three days.

The Grand Bastard Anthony, his half-brother Charles and Isabella rode to Brussels where Isabella prostrated herself before Philip’s bed. He asked her to stay and look after him which she did and used the time to repair some of the damage done to their relationship.

Mayhem Abroad

Margaret of Anjou
Isabella was able to revivify Anglo-Burgundian trade relations and an embassy comprising of both Yorkists and Lancastrians was sent to both France and Burgundy where Philip welcomed the proposals. The English proposed marrying his baby granddaughter Mary to one of the Duke of York’s sons. Philip did not answer the proposal.

The embassy then continued on to Rouen where they offered a marriage between Edward Prince of Wales with one of Charles VII’s daughters[xi]. Charles agreed to think about the proposals. The Yorkists warned Philip that if the Anglo-French proposals were taken up the English would be barred from coming to the assistance of the Burgundians if they were attacked by the French.

In early 1459 Isabella wrote to inform the English envoys that she and her husband were prepared to discuss the matter when the English sent sufficiently high-ranking personages to negotiate terms. Philip sent an embassy to Charles VII at Montbazon complaining about the French attacks on his territories and the ignoring of Philip’s ducal rights in the Paris Parlement. The king’s lawyers refuted Philip’s claims, accusing him of disloyalty to the king.

Edward of York
Meanwhile Queen Margaret was working to destroy the alliance between the Yorkists and the Burgundians. On 23rd September Margaret sent her agents to arrest the Duke of York, his son Edward and the Earl of Warwick. The men had been pre-warned of the imminent arrests and York fled to Ireland while Edward of York fled to Calais with Warwick and his father Lord Salisbury.

The Yorkists were not without their sympathisers as this letter warning Norfolk gentleman John Paston[xii] shows;

‘A lewd doctor of Ludgate preached on Sunday a fortnight ago at St. Paul’s, charging the people that no man should pray for these lords, the traitors [York and his allies] etc.; and he had little thanks, as he deserved…..the Chamberlain [Margaret’s man] is not good to these lords.…[A number of persons] have commissions lately to take traitors and send to the nearest gaol all persons who are favourers and well-wishers to the said lords.’[xiii]

The struggle between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians was about to erupt into what was to become known as the Wars of the Roses.


The Hundred Years War – Alfred Burne, Folio Society 2005

The Reign of Henry VI – RA Griffiths, Sutton Publishing Ltd 1998

The Fifteenth Century – EF Jacob, Oxford University Press 1997

Louis XI – Paul Murray Kendall, Sphere Books Ltd 1974

Margaret of Anjou – Helen E Maurer, Boydell Press 2003

Isabel of Burgundy – Aline S Taylor, Madison Books 2001

Philip the Good – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2014

Charles the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2002


[i] According to Chastellain
[ii] Louis XI - Kendall
[iii] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[iv] In 2015 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £696,600.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £5,955,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £25,340,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £466,200,000.00
[v] Louis XI - Kendall
[vi] Following the battle of Alfarrobeira where his father Pedro was killed during an uprising against John’s cousin King Alfonso V of Portugal, whose father Edward had died in September 1438. John arrived in Burgundy with his brother Jaime de Coimbre and sister Beatriz who later married one of Philip’s nephews, Adolf of Cleves
[vii] It is believed that John’s mother-in-law Helena Palaiologina ordered his death
[viii] This followed Ohip’s refusal to attend a Lit de Justice ordered by Charles VII into the treasonous behaviour of the Duc d’Alençon who was accused of treating with the English
[ix] Louis XI - Kendall
[x] Possibly the beginning of syphilis or diabetes symptoms
[xi] Prince Edward was not married until December 1470 when he was wed to Anne Neville, daughter of Warwick the Kingmaker as he became known. After his death she married Edward VI’s younger brother Richard
[xiii] Illustrated Letters of the Paston Family – Virgoe

Monday, 3 April 2017

A Duchess of Burgundy VI

The Burghers of Ghent surrender to Philip the Good
Ghent Humbled

Needing funds to continue his war Philip dropped his prohibition on the transport of English cloth. By this point Isabella had decided to support the Duke of York[i], who was pro-trade with Burgundy, in the internecine war in the English court. She now prepared to travel to Gravelines. Charles VII became aware of her intentions which would interfere with the final stages of the Hundred Years War; Charles was hopeful of throwing the English out of his country for good[ii].

Ghent finally surrendered to her lord after the Battle of Gavère on 23rd July 1453 where 17,000 Ghentish men died. The Burgundians had rallied behind Philip in his fight with the men of Ghent.

‘And their dead were estimated at seventeen or eighteen thousand men, both killed and drowned. Among others several of their captains and deans were killed, including a good ten or eleven of their echevins. Besides this, a number of prisoners were taken.’[iii]

During July 1453 Henry VI lost his hold on reality for the first time; Queen Margaret managed to keep the matter hidden for three months until the birth of her son Edward of Westminster in October. Richard of York was the logical choice to become protector of the realm in the king’s stead and he had Suffolk arrested and replaced him as Captain of Calais with Richard Neville[iv], Earl of Warwick. The war in France was coming to a stuttering close; after the fall of Châtillon[v] in July there was little left save the Pale of Calais to fight over.

A New Wife for Charles

Pope Nicholas V
Charles VII was now looking to his investigation into the legality of Joan of Arc’s trial to yield dividends; the case was going to Rome and Charles anticipated that he would be given sovereignty over all of Burgundy. He hoped to go down in history as the king who reunited France.

In his turn Philip was looking to join the Pope Nicholas V’s call for a crusade against the Ottomans following the fall of Constantinople[vi]. Philip spent much of the early part of 1454 celebrating his victory over the men of Ghent and working to forge his men into a fighting unit that would win him renown in the east. Isabella supported Philip in this ambition.

While Philip was planning a French bride for Charles, now 21, to consolidate any alliance he might be able to make with Charles VII, Isabella had her eye on one of the Duke of York’s younger daughters for her son. To that end she started negotiations with the duke, now Regent[vii].

Sadly for Isabella her plans came to naught as Philip put his foot down; he decided that the potential for peace with France would be best served if Charles was to marry his cousin[viii] Isabella of Bourbon, daughter of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon. Neither Charles nor his mother wanted the match which Philip insisted on. The young Isabella had been living in Isabella’s household; she was favoured by Philip who was fond of his sister’s child.

Philip obtained a release from the pope for the marriage between first cousins even as he started fund-raising for the crusade. He also decided to attend the Imperial Diet at Regensburg to that end. He made Charles;

Governor and Lieutenant General , in the absence of my most redoubted lord and father, of his lands and lordships in the Netherlands.’[ix]

in his absence. Philip also issued edicts on expenditure that curbed the magnificence of his court, although he prudently allowed sufficient monies to overawe the German princes at the Diet. Feasts, games, jousts and concerts were severely curtailed and the pensions of court officials reduced.

The Heir’s Second Wife

Charles and Isabella of Bourbon
Philip suddenly discovered Isabella’s plans to marry their son to a member of the English royal family. He was probably apprised of Isabella’s manoeuvrings by one of the de Croy brothers[x]. Concerned that Isabella would have her own way while he was at Regensburg Philip pushed through the betrothal without the approval of Isabella of Bourbon’s parents and that of Charles VII.

At home Isabella had spent the winter at La Motte-au-Bois[xi] before returning to the Rihour Palace in Lille[xii] in the spring. Her representatives had been meeting with the English since January. Charles joined his mother in Lille in early May. Not long after Philip left Salins for Nevers where he met his sister, the Duke of Orléans and Pierre Amboise the representative of the Duke of Bourbon[xiii]. Philip’s demands for the seigneury and lands of Chinon to be given to Isabella of Bourbon were rejected during several weeks of negotiations[xiv].

Unable to come to an agreement Philip left Nevers for Dijon, prepared to wait until his demands were met. He stayed there throughout August and September. In the north Isabella was struggling to keep the Anglo-Burgundian talks alive. More and more Burgundian ships were being taken by the English and in August both Charles and Isabella wrote to Philip warning of a possible English attack. They wrote again in September.

By October Charles VII was becoming worried that Isabella might prevail upon Philip to accede to the English marriage she was chasing and wrote to Philip explaining that he was unable to allow Chinon to be incorporated in the marriage contract;

‘So pray do not postpone the marriage….for any cause, if by permission of the church and or our Holy Father it can be lawfully completed.’[xv]

Philip ordered Charles to marry Isabella of Bourbon straight away under the original terms of the marriage contract signed by the Duke of Bourbon the previous year, which included the lands of Chinon. The marriage took place as ordered on 31st October 1454. Isabella was so chagrined that she failed to pay due deference to her new daughter-in-law. Charles returned to his position as temporary governor based at Termonde[xvi] while Isabella of Bourbon stayed with her mother-in-law.

Drifting Apart

Philippe of Renty
The marriage did nothing to repair the problems with France; the raids on Burgundy’s northern borders continued and Charles VII refused to allow Philip to recruit crusaders in France. In addition Isabella’s power was waning as that of the de Croy family increased. As chamberlain Antoine was the most influential at court, even more so than Chancellor Rolin, but his brother Jehan[xvii] and their sons Philippe of Renty and Philippe of Sempy also benefitted not only from Philip’s largesse but also from the hand of Charles VII. They were powers in their own rights[xviii].

The de Croy family were able to keep Philip focussed on France as Burgundy’s partner, despite the depredations that France’s soldiers were making on Burgundian lands, despite the French enclaves set up thereon. Philip’s blindness to French intent is remarkable as are his ignoring of Isabella’s advice.

Philip, now 59, had taken his eye off the ball. He was distracted by his plans to go on crusade and he still hoped to gain recognition  for his imperial holdings. The de Croy family meanwhile were looking forward to a French victory over Burgundy after which they would reap their just rewards for supporting the victor. They increased their involvement with the French even as Philip’s trust in Isabella decreased. He now had no-one to counter the de Croy influence.

Philippe of Sempy
The Burgundian coasts were plagued by French pirates who preyed mainly on English shipping. The trade treaty that Isabella had stitched together with such care was falling apart. The Burgundians did not help matters by holding up Staple merchant caravans as they crossed Burgundian territory. Philip refused to send Isabella to smooth matters over as she had done in the past.

The couple were divided physically as well as mentally; Isabella was staying at Cassel. Isabella wanted to free her son from the de Croy influence. Charles was very vocal in his opposition to his father’s policies and the two men argued a lot throughout the winter of 1455-6. Charles was described as;

‘Hot-blooded, active and irritable and, as a child, wanted his own way and disliked rebuke. Nevertheless, he had such good understanding he resisted his natural tendencies and, as a youth, there was no one more polite and well-tempered.’[xix]

In this Charles was like his father; Philip was normally the most polite and courteous to all, unless he was crossed and this rarely happened to him.


The Hundred Years War – Alfred Burne, Folio Society 2005

The Reign of Henry VI – RA Griffiths, Sutton Publishing Ltd 1998

The Fifteenth Century – EF Jacob, Oxford University Press 1997

Margaret of Anjou – Helen E Maurer, Boydell Press 2003

Isabel of Burgundy – Aline S Taylor, Madison Books 2001

Philip the Good – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2014

Charles the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2002


[i] Queen Margaret was now voicing her suspicions of her husband’s uncle openly
[ii] Bar the area around the Pale of Calais
[iii] Philip the Good - Vaughan
[iv] Known as the Kingmaker
[vii] Margaret had demanded the regency for herself, but too many of the nobility viewed her as siding with Charles VII
[viii] Through her mother Agnes, daughter of John the Fearless
[ix] Philip the Good - Vaughan
[x] Both highly influential with Philip
[xii] A town of some 25,000 inhabitants
[xiii] Incapacitated with gout
[xiv] Bourbon had promised Charles VII that he would leave Chinon to his son John
[xv] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[xvi] Known as Dendermonde
[xvii] Who fielded his own army independent of Philip’s
[xviii] Jehan was Count of Chimay and Antoine was Count of Porcéan and Guînes and Lord of Aarschot
[xix] Philip the Good - Vaughan