Monday, 30 November 2015

Renaissance Europe - Juana la Loca V

Convent Atrio de las Claras

Ferdinand acted as regent from 1507–1516 during which his daughter was allegedly insane. Reports filtered back to England in the person of Henry VIII’s agent John Stiles and the Venetian ambassador to Spain was no less busy in his reports to the Senate. He informed them that Juana was considered mad;

‘The king [Ferdinand] says so……She expects her husband to come to life again and carries his body about with her in a coffin. She says this resurrection will take place at the end of ten years.’[i]

Ferdinand was clearly ensuring that his regency was viewed as legal in the eyes of the world. He was very successful.

Ferdinand dismissed all of Juana’s servants and appointed a small retinue accountable to him alone. Juana had her youngest daughter, Caterina, with her at Tordesillas under the care of one of her father’s men, one Mosen Ferrer. Prince Ferdinand remained in the care of his grandfather.

Juana’s rooms overlooked the river Douro and she was surrounded by many of her most treasured possessions including a set of tapestries she’d given to her mother and returned to her when Isabella died. Ferdinand visited his daughter occasionally and sent her jewellery. Juana had over 100 books in her possession, many of them religious works, including Books of Hours.

On rare occasions Juana was allowed to visit the convent to take solace in prayer with the nuns. She apparently retained an interest in the affairs of the convent for some years. Reportedly it was difficult for Juana to eat, sleep, bathe, or change her clothes. When she became frustrated Juana reverted to the behaviour of her youth that had won her her own way in years past.

The Outside World

Isabella of Austria
On 11 July 1514 Isabella was married by proxy to King Christian II of Denmark, with her grandfather Maximilian standing in for the king. Isabella remained in the Netherlands, but was said to have fallen in love with her spouse when she saw a painting of him. A year after the wedding, the Archbishop of Nidaros was sent to escort her to Copenhagen. The marriage was an unhappy one.

On 22 July 1515 Juana’s daughter Maria was married to the heir of the king of Hungary; Prince Louis.  The couple were married in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna. At the same time, Louis' sister Anne was betrothed to an as yet unspecified brother of Mary, with Maximilian once again acting as proxy.

Anne eventually married Mary's brother Ferdinand and came to Vienna, where the double sisters-in-law were educated together until 1516. That year, Mary's father-in-law died, making Louis and Mary king and queen of Hungary and Bohemia. Mary moved to Innsbruck, where she was educated until 1521, when she was finally enthroned as queen of Hungary. Louis died in August 1526 in the aftermath of the battle of Mohács during an Ottoman incursion into Europe.

King of Half the World

Charles V
Charles became co-monarch of Castile and Aragon with Juana when Ferdinand died on 23rd January 1516. On 3rd March 1516 Charles marched out in procession from the ducal palace in Brussels, with his fellow knights of the Golden Fleece to the cathedral where he was pronounced King of Spain with his mother.

‘Long live their catholic Majesties Queen Juana and King Charles.’[ii]

Rumours of Juana’s ill-treatment came to Charles’ ear and he dismissed Ferrer and replaced him with the Duke of Estrada. Ferrer wrote to Charles asking for his job back and blaming Ferdinand for the treatment meted out to Juana;

‘The King her father could never do more until, to prevent her destroying herself by abstinence from food, as often as her will was not done, he had to order that she was to be put to the rack to preserve her life. Was that my fault?’[iii]

Charles travelled to Spain, landing on the Asturian coast in September 1516 and it took six weeks for the royal entourage to reach Tordesillas. On 4th November, he and his sister Eleanor met their mother Juana for the first time since 1506. Charles untruthfully assured Juana that he had come to Spain solely for her sake and was determined to ensure that any complaints she had about her treatment be dealt with.


Eleanor of Austria
Charles and Eleanor secured from their mother the necessary authorisation to allow Charles to rule as her co-King of Castile and León and of Aragon, although at no time was Juana informed that her father was dead. Despite Juana’s acquiescence to Charles’ he continued to keep his mother confined. He did however change Juana a new jailer in the Marquis of Denia who, like Charles, was more concerned with his charge’s soul than her life on earth.

Beyond ensuring that Cisneros, who had been given oversight of Juana’s care, ensured that Juana was not ill-treated, Charles was not predisposed to free his mother. He wrote to Denia;

‘It seems to me that the best and most suitable thing for you to do is to make sure that no person speaks with Her Majesty, for no good could come from it.’[iv]

His greatest concern was that his mother and sister took mass and the fact that she dined only once every two days was of far less interest to him. Juana was kept starved of information from the outside world; any of her women likely to inform her of the doings in Torsellidas were dismissed. Denia even stopped Juana’s infrequent visits to the convent, no matter how much she pleaded for them.


On the 12th January 1519 Charles became Holy Roman Emperor following the death of his grandfather, Maximilian. The following year in 1520, the Revolt of the Comuneros broke out, originally in Toledo[v], in response to valid perceptions of foreign Habsburg influence over Castile. The rebel leaders demanded that Castile be governed in accordance with the supposed practices of the Catholic Monarchs.

They objected to, amongst other financial burdens, Castile bearing the expenses of Charles election as Holy Roman Emperor. In an attempt to legitimize their rebellion the Comuneros turned to Ferdinand and Isabell’s heir, Juana. To stop the revolt Don Antonio de Rojas, Bishop of Mallorca, led a delegation of royal councilors to Tordesillas. They asked Juana to sign a document denouncing the Comuneros. She demurred, requesting that de Rojas present her specific provisions.

Adrian (as Pope)
Before this could be done the Comuneros in turn stormed the virtually undefended city and requested Juana’s support. The request prompted Adrian of Utrecht[vi], the regent appointed by Charles V, to tell Juana that Charles would lose Castile if Juana supported the rebels.

Charles was still demanding money from his Spanish subjects to forward his interests in the Holy Roman Empire. On 25th August Adrian wrote to Charles;

‘Your Highness is making a great error if you think that you will be able to collect and make use of this tax; there is no one in…..Seville or Valladolid or any other city who will ever pay anything of it; all the grandees and members of the council are amazed that Your Highness has scheduled payments from these funds.’[vii]

Although Juana was sympathetic to the Comuneros, she was persuaded by her confessor Fray John of Avila that supporting the revolt would irreparably damage the country and her son's kingship and she therefore refused to sign a document granting her support. The Battle of Villalar signaled the defeat of the revolt.


John III of Portugal
On 16 July 1518 Juana’s eldest child, Eleanor, was married to the man who had twice been Juana’s brother-in-law, Manuel of Portugal. Charles had arranged his sister’s marriage to keep Portugal allied with Castile. Eleanor was widowed on 13 December 1521, when Manuel died of the plague. As Queen Dowager of Portugal, Eleanor returned to her brother’s court in Spain.

The Infanta Caterina was finally released from incarceration with her mother, when she married her cousin, King John III of Portugal, on 10 February 1525. The following year, on 10th March 1526, Charles married John’s sister Isabella[viii]. Charles, who believed he cared deeply for his family, had ensured that Caterina’s apartments at Torsellidas were richly appointed and suitable for a royal princess.

The loss of Caterina can only have increased Juana’s mental instability. When Caterina had been removed from her care at the age of eleven for a few months Juana had declared to Denia that she was afraid that;

‘The King, my lord, will take her from me as he has taken the Infante [Ferdinand].’[ix]

If that should happen Juana had threatened to throw herself out of the window or kill herself with a knife. Now that Caterina was gone for good Juana was distraught, staying in the corridor, where she had last seen her daughter, for 24 hours and then she took to her bed for two days. From now on Juana was to be bereft of family.

In July 1523, Eleanor was engaged to Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, in an alliance between Charles and Bourbon against France, but the marriage never took place. In 1526, Eleanor was engaged to King François I of France during his captivity in Spain. She married François on 4 July 1530[x].

On 3 January 1531 Charles requested that his sister Mary assume the regency of the Netherlands. Charles was ruling a vast empire and was constantly in need of reliable family members who could govern his remote territories in his name. Mary reluctantly accepted on Charles' insistence. On 6 October 1537, from Monzón, the Emperor wrote to his sister:

Capilla Real
‘I am only one and I can't be everywhere; and I must be where I ought to be and where I can, and often enough only where I can be and not where I would like to be; for one can't do more than one can do.’[xi]

In his own interests Charles continued to keep his mother imprisoned until her death on 12th April 1555 at the age of seventy five, by which time she had been confined nearly fifty years[xii]. Latterly Joanna's physical state declined rapidly as she became ever more immobile.
In her final years Juana was so frail that her attendants were unable to change her soiled bedlinen. Juana was buried in the Royal Chapel of Granada (la Capilla Real) in Spain alongside her parents, her husband Philip I and her nephew Miguel da Paz.


Sister Queens – Julia Fox, Ballantine Books 2011

Ferdinand and Isabella – Melveena McKendrick, Cassell 1969

Six Wives – David Starkey, Chatto & Windus 2003

Catherine of Aragon – Giles Tremlett, Faber & Faber 2010

The Wives of Henry VIII – Alison Weir, Pimlico 1992

The Hapsburgs – Andrew Wheatcroft, Folio Society 2004

[i] Sister Queens - Fox
[ii] The Hapsburgs - Wheatcroft
[iii] Sister Queens - Fox
[v] Concerned about Spanish monies being used to fund Charles’ bid to become Holy Roman Emperor
[vi] The future Pope Adrian VI
[viii] The successive inbreeding in the Hapsburg family finally resulted in Carlos II, who was noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and died childless
[ix] Sister Queens - Fox
[x] They had no children
[xii] Her jailer was later in charge of Juana’s great grandson Don Carlos

Tuesday, 24 November 2015

Renaissance Europe - Juana la Loca IV

Falmouth Bay
Hostages in England

Philip and Juana did not set sail for Spain until January 1506 when they travelled with virtually the whole Burgundian court in attendance. Juana created a huge fuss about the women due to travel on the royal vessel, under the belief that they would sleep with her husband.

The journey was a royal progress at sea and the beginning of the journey went well passing;

‘Calais by night, shooting guns, having great torches lit…..trumpets and minstrels playing and singing.’[i]

Bishop Foxe
The fleet was suddenly becalmed and then hit by a furious storm that scattered the fleet before it, driving the ships onto the English shore. During the storm Juana sat entwined between Philips’ legs so that death would not part them. Most of the fleet put in at Falmouth, in Cornwall, but Philip and Juana landed at Melcombe Regis[ii].

The royal party was drawn inland on the pretext that supplies were more plentiful there and Philip sent his secretary to request a meeting with Henry VII, who was more than pleased to meet what were, in essence, his hostages who were lavishly entertained.

Sir Thomas Brandon, the Master of the Horse, was sent to escort Philip to London. En route the party stopped at Winchester where Philip was entertained by the bishop, Richard Foxe[iii]. The party were joined there by Henry, the Prince of Wales; he then escorted the party to Windsor to meet his father on 31st January.

An Infamous Treaty

Princess Mary
In the castle Philip stayed in the king’s own apartments and the entertainment proffered, ranging from horse baiting to dancing, was interspersed with sessions of hard bargaining. A treaty was sealed on 9th February.

On 10th February Juana arrived at the castle to be met on the privy stairs by Henry VII, her sister Caterina and Princess Mary. Juana and Philip remained at Windsor until the weekend when Philip went to Richmond for the hunting and hawking while Juana returned to join the fleet. It is very possible that Philip arranged to separate Juana from Caterina fearing that Juana might be encouraged into independence over the matter of Juana’s inheritance.

At Richmond Philip joined in a tennis match, playing against the Marquess of Dorset. On Sunday 15th February Philip paid his bill, undertaking publicly to hand over Edmund de la Pole, a pretender to the English crown[iv]. Philip agreed to the handover with the proviso that Edmund not be killed. Philip and Henry made their farewells before a formal dinner on 2nd March. Henry accompanied Philip on his first leg of the journey, but immediately after leaving Windsor Philip became feverish;

‘Partly because of the Lenten fare and partly because of the weather, which was severe.’[v]

He lay sick at Reading Abbey for eight or nine days before resuming his journey and meeting Juana at Falmouth on 26th March. The fleet was unable to sail for three weeks due to adverse winds.

Return to Spain

Castillo de San Anton, Coruna
Philip and Juana did not arrive in Spain until April 1506, landing at Coruňa. Philip was determined to cut Juana out of the equation and rule as sole monarch of Castile. Ferdinand met Philip at Villafáfila on 20 June 1506 and handed over the government of Castile to his "most beloved children", promising to retire to Aragon.

Philip and Ferdinand then signed a second treaty, agreeing that Joanna's mental instability made her incapable of ruling and promising to exclude her from government. Ferdinand recommended that Philip;

‘Cultivate a better understanding with the Queen, his wife….[her health depended] upon gentle measures being used.’[vi]

Philip & Juana as rulers of Castile
Ferdinand then proceeded to repudiate the agreement the same afternoon, declaring that Joanna should never be deprived of her rights as Queen Proprietress of Castile.

A fortnight later, having come to no fresh agreement with Philip and thus effectively retaining his right to interfere if he considered his daughter's rights to have been infringed upon, Ferdinand abandoned Castile for Aragon, without having met with his daughter and leaving Philip to govern in Juana's stead.

But Philip did not enjoy being king of Castile for long; on 19th September he caught a chill after a strenuous ball game in Burgos, the chill turned to fever and he died on 25th at the age of twenty-eight.

The Death March

Rumours of assassination and poison were rife at the time, despite sickness being rife in the area during the period in question; it is possible that Juana believed the rumours. There is no doubt that, emotionally drained and in the throes of pregnancy, Juana was very badly affected by Philip’s death.

Rumours abounded; Juana had had Philip’s body embalmed and refused to allow him to be buried, his coffin went wherever she travelled, she opened his coffin and kissed the corpse’s feet and would allow no woman other than herself near the corpse. The rumours only helped to add to Juana’s reputation as ‘la Loca.’ Her secretary, Juan Lopez, always maintained that Juana was;

‘More sane than her mother.’[vii]

Archbishop Cisneros (as cardinal)
Juana wanted Philip to be buried at Granada, to be buried close to her mother. Philip had apparently also intimated that he be buried there. The journey from Burgos to Granada commenced in the depths of winter and the heavily pregnant Juana chose to travel with the cortège. The journey was halted in Torquemada where Juana’s last child, Caterina, was born on 14th January 1507.

A regency council under Archbishop Cisneros was set up, against the queen's orders, the day before Philip’s death. But the council was unable to manage the problems besetting the kingdom. Castile was suffering from growing public disorder; plague and famine devastated the kingdom with supposedly half the population perishing of one or the other.

Juana was unable to secure the funds required to assist her to protect her power. She revoked all of Philip’s grants of lands, monies and offices to his cronies on 18th December 1506. The revocations were ignored.

Thoughts of Marriage

Painting believed to be Caterina d'Aragona 
In January 1507 that arch-schemer the King of England conceived the idea of marrying the Queen of Castile, the widowed Juana. This idea was more attractive than marrying Caterina to Prince Henry, but to keep Ferdinand sweet Henry did not want to break off that engagement. Henry VII had found Juana sultry and oriental and knew, more to the point, capable of bearing healthy children as he informed Caterina.

Caterina was in favour of the marriage as it would bring her into closer contact with her sister. But this was not a marriage that Ferdinand would ever assent to, having no intention of letting that sly fox Henry anywhere near the throne of Castile. To keep his ally sweet he told Caterina to inform the sly fox that it was;

‘Not yet known whether Queen Juana be inclined to marry again….[if so] it shall be with no other person than the King of England.’[viii]

The marriage of course never happened, but it is highly likely that Henry VII was well aware that the rumours of Juana’s madness were just that; rumours.

‘The story of her “madness” was never, until perhaps the end of her long life, more than very successful propaganda put out by her ruthless and unscrupulous father and son. It is probable that Henry VII knew or suspected the truth.’[ix]


In the face of the troubles plaguing the kingdom and sensing an opportunity to regain power, Ferdinand II returned to Castile in July 1507. His arrival coincided with a remission of the plague and famine, a development which quieted the instability and left an impression that his return had restored the health of the kingdom.

Ferdinand II and Juana met at Hornillos, Castile on 30 July 1507. Ferdinand then forced her to yield up her power over the Kingdom of Castile and León to himself. On 17 August 1507 Juana summoned three members of the royal council and ordered them to inform the grandees, in her name, of her father Ferdinand II's return to power:

‘That they should go to receive his highness and serve him as they would her person and more.’[x]

Juana refused to sign the instructions, issuing a statement that she did not endorse the surrender of her own royal power. Eventually Ferdinand, as regent, had Juana locked away in the fortress at Tordesillas. Philip’s coffin was handed to the nuns of the adjacent Santa Clara convent.


Henry VII – SB Chrimes, Eyre Methuen 1987

Sister Queens – Julia Fox, Ballantine Books 2011

Ferdinand and Isabella – Melveena McKendrick, Cassell 1969

Henry – David Starkey, Harper Press 2008

Six Wives – David Starkey, Chatto & Windus 2003

Catherine of Aragon – Giles Tremlett, Faber & Faber 2010

The Wives of Henry VIII – Alison Weir, Pimlico 1992

The Hapsburgs – Andrew Wheatcroft, Folio Society 2004

[i] Henry - Starkey
[ii] In the lee of the Isle of Portland
[iii] Lord Privy Seal and Henry’s principal minister
[iv] Killed in the Tower of London in 1513, Henry VIII considering himself not bound by a treaty signed by his father.
[v] Henry - Starkey
[vi] Sister Queens - Fox
[vii] Ibid
[viii] The Wives of Henry VIII - Weir
[ix] Henry VII - Chrimes